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Posts Tagged ‘Breastfeeding’

Those following daily are beginning to get confortable with the jargon (I hope). For ease of newcomers following along , please consult the glossary of terms that I’ve written to make the terminology very understandable. Also, consult the post that explains the essential background.

As we continue our analysis of the ABC literature, we turn our attention today to a study that validates the biological model of full term birth creating the terminal differentiation (maturing) of cancer-prone Type 1 and Type 2 breast lobule cells into cancer resistant Type 4 cells. This is an important paper, as it is an analysis of 47 epidemiological studies from 30 nations involving over 149,000 women.

It affirms what is called the protective effect of full term pregnancy, and does so in a striking way. The results of the analysis indicate that for every full term pregnancy, a woman decreases her risk of BC by 7%. For every year that she breastfeeds she reduces her risk an additional 4.3%.

For a great illustration-rich and detailed explanation of the protective effect from the Breast Cancer Prevention Institute, click here.

Those who seek to deny the ABC link in the literature often say that it isn’t the abortion that causes the BC, but the loss of the protective effect of a full term pregnancy.

That’s like saying the bullet didn’t kill the victim, it was the loss of blood.

Title: Breast Cancer and breastfeeding: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries, including 52,302 women with breast cancer and 96,973 women without the disease.

Authors: Valerie Beral, et al. (Note, the paper copy I have refers to the additional authors being found on the web index to which I currently have no access).

Journal: The Lancet, Vol. 360 (no. 9328), 20 July 2002.

The authors are so clear in their language that what follows comes directly from the paper (all emphases are added by me):

Methods: Individual data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries that included information on breastfeeding patterns and other aspects of childbearing were collected, checked, and analyzed centrally, for 50,302 women with invasive breast cancer and 96,973 controls. Estimates of the relative risk for breast cancer associated with breastfeeding in parous women were obtained after stratification by fine divisions of age, parity, and women’s ages when their first child was born, as well as by study and menopause status.

Findings: Women with BC had on average, fewer births than did controls (2.2 vs 2.6). Furthermore, fewer parous women with cancer than parous controls had ever breastfed (71% vs 79%), and their average lifetime duration of breastfeeding was shorter (9.8 vs 15.6 months). The relative risk of breast cancer decreased by 4.3% (95% CI) for every 12 months of breastfeeding in addition to a decrease of 7.0% for each birth. The size of the decline in the relative risk (RR) of BC associated with breastfeeding did not differ significantly for women in developed and developing countries, and did not vary significantly by age, menopausal status, ethnic origin, the number of births women had, her age when her first child was born, or any of the other personal characteristics examined.

It is estimated that the cumulative incidence of breast cancer in developed countries would be reduced by more than half, from 6.3 to 2.7 per 100 women by age 70, if women had the average number of births and lifetime duration of breastfeeding that had been prevalent in developing countries until recently. Breastfeeding could account for almost two-thirds of this estimated reduction in breast cancer incidence.

Public Health Implications (excerpted and bullet-pointed):

• The short duration of breastfeeding typical of women in developed countries makes a major contribution to the high incidence of breast cancer in these countries.
• If in the future the mechanism of the protective effect of breastfeeding on breast cancer were understood, it might be possible to prevent BC by mimicking the effect of breastfeeding therapeutically or in some other way.
• If women in developed countries had 2.5 children, on average, but breastfed each child 6 months or longer than they currently do, about 25,000 (5%) breast cancers would be prevented each year.
• If each child were breastfed an additional 12 months, about 50,000 (11%) breast cancers might be prevented annually.

Now, what does all of this indicate relative to our ongoing analysis of the literature?

First, we have detailed the normal physiology of the breast and indicated how the number of immature cells doubles in the first trimester of a first pregnancy.

Second, we have discussed the role of placental lactogen in maturing 85% of these cells to cancer resistant cells beginning in the latter half of the second trimester, and finishing shortly after week 32 (mid-third trimester).

We have also seen here further evidence of the protective effect of full-term pregnancy and breastfeeding (with the continued maturational effects of lactation hormones on the remaining 15% of immature, cancer-prone cells).

We have seen studies that indicate a 30-50% rise in the general population of women in breast cancer if they have abortion before a FFTP, which points to the loss of protective effect in bringing the baby to term and further loss of protective effect when there is no baby to breastfeed.

We have seen that even ardent advocates of abortion (I have accepted the corrections offered me in not using ‘pro-abort’), such as Palmer and Rosenberg in paper #1 stand by their methods and numbers, but point to the discredited studies that suggest recall bias in a desperate attempt to blunt the impact of those data.

It is well known and uncontested that estrogen is a WHO group 1 carcinogen. It is well known and uncontested that estrogen levels rise dramatically in early pregnancy, stimulating a doubling of the immature, cancer-prone cells of the lobules. This giant analysis in The Lancet validates directly the protective effect of pregnancy and breastfeeding, and necessarily implies the consequences of no protective effect from induced abortion.

This is not unreasonable to conclude, as the authors are presenting such dramatic statistics based upon the remaining 15% of breast lobule cells after a FFTP! It is all the more certain that when induced abortion leaves the additional 85% of lobule cells in their immature and cancer-prone state that the incidence of cancer should rise proportionally to the number of cancer-prone cells left behind by abortion.

And we’ve only just begun!

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Those following daily are beginning to get confortable with the jargon (I hope). For ease of newcomers following along , please consult the glossary of terms that I’ve written to make the terminology very understandable. Also, consult the post that explains the essential background.

Title: Prolonged breastfeeding reduces risk of breast cancer in Sri Lankan women: A case–control study

Authors: Malintha De Silva , Upul Senarath, Mangala Gunatilake , Dilani Lokuhetty

Journal: Cancer Epidemiology 34 (2010) 267–273

Goal: To assess the association between duration of breastfeeding and the risk of breast cancer in Sri Lankan women.

The method in the author’s own words. It’s very clear and worth the read:

We conducted a case–control study in selected health care
facilities in the Western province of Sri Lanka from January to
December 2007. The cases were selected from three tertiary care
hospitals: the Cancer Institute Maharagama, the National Hospital
of Sri Lanka and the Colombo North Teaching Hospital. The Cancer
Institute Maharagama is the only referral hospital for cancer in Sri
Lanka, and provides care for the majority of cancer patients in the
country. The National Hospital of Sri Lanka and the Colombo North
Teaching Hospital also provide diagnostic facilities and initial
treatment for selected cancers, i.e., surgery for breast cancer.

A ‘case’ of breast cancer was defined as a woman who was
newly diagnosed to have invasive breast cancer either by fine
needle aspiration (cytological) or core/excision biopsy (patholo-
gical), with or without a positive mammogram (radiological),
together with clinical diagnosis. The sample was restricted to
women aged 30–64 years and admitted to the surgical units of the
above mentioned hospitals. Among the excluded were those
having more than a 3-year delay between diagnosis and admission
for surgery, secondary deposits in the breast where the primary
malignancy was at another site and critically ill patients. All the
women who satisfied the above mentioned criteria were enrolled
in the study as ‘cases’ until the required sample size was fulfilled.

The control group was selected from Well Women Clinics
conducted in five Medical Officer of Health divisions in the
Western province, namely Pitakotte, Nugegoda, Wattala, Ragama
and Ja-ela. The Well Women Clinics offer screening services
including clinical examination of breasts and PAP smear test for
cervical cytology for apparently healthy women in the community.
However, these clinics do not provide mammographic screening
facilities for breast cancer. The controls were matched to the cases
by the respondent’s age group (5-year age groups) and parity, since
these 2 variables were well recognized risk factors, which would
otherwise confound the hypothesized association between breast
cancer and breastfeeding. Once a case was identified, two controls
comparable to the index case were selected from the immediate
Well Women Clinic out of the 5 clinic centers.

The data were collected by interviewing women by the trained
interviewers using a pre-tested, structured questionnaire.
The questions were focused to collect details of
breastfeeding and other potential confounding factors for breast
cancer. The lactation history was obtained for each live birth
separately, including details regarding duration of breastfeeding,
period of amenorrhea during breastfeeding, age at first lactation
and at most recent lactation. The total duration of breastfeeding
was calculated by summing up the number of months of
breastfeeding per each child. In addition, information was
collected on level of education, employment, family history of
breast cancer, menstrual and reproductive history, exposure to
passive smoking, use of alcohol and daily activity level.

Results: Data are reported with a 95% Confidence Interval

Among women with past history of abortion, the OR is 3.42 (More than triple the risk of developing BC).

Paasive smoking raised the risk three-fold (OR=2.96)

Breastfeeding 24 months or more compared to no breastfeeding OR=0.40 (60% reduction in breast cancer among breastfeeding women)

The results validate well-known data indicating an increase in BC among women exposed to cigarette smoke.

The data validate what is known about the protective effect of a full term pregnancy and prolonged exposure to lactogen and the general maturational effects of lactation hormones on the lobule cells during breastfeeding.

And the data support all the aforementioned risk associated with breast cancer in women who have not had the protective effect of a first full term pregnancy because of abortion.

Note to those who continue to assert that I am ideologically driven in my presentation of the data and rejection of the fantasy called recall bias, or reporting bias:

Ideology is manifest when researchers claim the presence or activity of a phenomenon for which they have absolutely no data. All that these folks have is a hunch. But there needs to be a way to test for this phenomenon. In paper #3 yesterday, we saw even stronger association between abortion and breast cancer in Greece where there are no cultural constraints on abortion, and a diminished likelihood of reporting error. Thus, the Greek study tells us that if anything, the underreporting is not in the control groups, but in the experimental groups here in America.

The Sri Lankan study shows an overwhelmingly high incidence of BC associated with abortion. This is a nation that is 70% Buddhist, 15% Hindu, 7.5% Muslim, and 7.5% Christian. Thus, there doesn’t appear to be the grounds for Palmer and Rosenberg’s contention of Catholic scruples as the source of reporting bias.

I am reporting the science. The ideologues are those who invent phenomena to attenuate data that challenge their most cherished beliefs and practices.

This study was entirely funded by Sri Lankan sources.

This October, please consider $upporting the following who desperately need our $upport to get the truth out*:

Breast Cancer Prevention Institute

Coalition on Abortion/Breast Cancer

*I have no institutional affiliation or membership with either group. Karen Malec and BCPI have been great resources for me, utterly generous with their time and resources.

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